The scientific theories propagated about the history of human beings and civilisations are essentially false.
Statistically, around 70% of the Earth’s surface is covered with oceans. Rest is either forests, mountains, deserts or inhabited by humans – and, hence cannot be dug.
Say, 1% of this area has been dug by archaeologists, even then we do not have technology to dig deep enough (and, hence go back long enough in time). So, we have very limited sample space as a physical evidence of the past.
Also, if a civilisation relied on oral means of knowledge sharing, there would be no physical evidence to study them. (On a separate note, scientists are discovering now that oral methods of knowledge sharing are far more superior compared to the present written ones).
Hence, all these so-called ‘scientific theories’ propagated (with such authority) about the history of human beings and civilisations are essentially false.